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Step 5: Revise and Optimize the Chart of Accounts

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After all has been done, we are now in the last step of our 5 Step Bookkeeping setup.

Organizing chart of accounts!

Well, you can organize your chart of accounts at the beginning of the setup, if you already have your ideal chart of accounts or you are from a previous working system with a chart of accounts ready

But if this is a new setup, or you don’t have your ideal chart of accounts, we can add your categories or accounts as needed when adding the transactions. Then after the transactions are all added, we can refine your chart of accounts.

Profit and Loss Accounts:

Profit and Loss Statement – financial report that summarizes a company’s revenues, expenses, and profits or losses over a given period of time

A P&L statement shows a company’s ability to generate sales, manage expenses, and create profits

What are the common profit and loss accounts? We will start from top to bottom.

A. Income Accounts

These are your revenue accounts, income accounts or sales accounts.

  • Service businesses – Sales or Services account
  • eCommerce/Retail Type – Sales of Product
  • Rental Properties – Rental Income
  • Amazon Sellers – Amazon Sales

B. Direct Cost Accounts

Are costs directly associated with the revenue generation activities, Sales, or providing of Services

  • Service businesses – Cost of Labor, Direct Costs
  • Product based businesses – Cost of Goods Sold
  • Other Direct Cots – Shipping, Supplies, Packaging, Materials, eCommerce Platform Costs

C. Operating Expenses

Are expenses you incur when running the business

Selling Expenses – all expenses related to making a sale or increasing sales. Common examples are:

  • Advertising
  • Promotions
  • Shipping/Delivery/Freight
  • Website Costs
  • Salaries/Commission of Sales Personnel

Admin Expensesall expenses related to managing the business. Examples:

  • Payroll Expenses
  • Legal Fees
  • Accounting Fees

General expenses – all expenses which do not fall directly in the first two. Examples:

  • Rent
  • Utilities
  • Office Expense
  • Office Software
  • Insurance
  • Small Tools and Equipment

D. Other Income

Income that does not come from a company’s main business

  • Interest Income
  • Rent
  • Gain on Sales of Fixed Assets

E. Other Expenses

Expenses that do not relate to a company’s main business

  • Interest Expense
  • Losses from Disposing of Fixed Assets
  • Miscellaneous expenses
  • Fraud


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Balance Sheet Accounts:

BALANCE SHEET – financial statement that shows a company’s assets, liabilities, and shareholder equity at a specific point in time

Common balance sheet accounts:


Are resources with economic value that an individual, corporation, or country owns or controls with the expectation that it will provide a future benefit.

Common examples are:

  • Cash
  • Bank Accounts
  • Account Receivable
  • Inventory
  • Prepaid Expense
  • Fixed Assets


Something a person or company owes, usually a sum of money. These are to be settled using money, goods, or services at a later time.

Examples are:

  • Credit Card
  • Accounts Payable
  • Tax payable
  • Salaries/Wages Payable
  • Loans
  • Mortgages


Owner’s Equity or Shareholders’ Equity, represents the amount of money owned by the owners in the business. 

After deducting liabilities that creditors own in the business, from Total Assets, what’s left will be equity.

Examples are:

  • Owner Contribution
  • Owner Capital
  • Owner Drawings
  • Shareholders’ contribution
  • Shareholder distribution
  • Common Shares
  • Additional Paid in Capital
  • Retained Earnings
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And this concludes our 5 Step Bookkeeping Series! Should you have questions or suggestions, let us know in the comments!

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